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triumphator

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Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Some triumphs included ludi as fulfillment of the general's vow to a god or goddess, made before battle or during its heat, in return for their help in securing victory.

Marcus Fulvius Nobilior vowed ludi in return for victory over the Aetolian League and paid for ten days of games at his triumph.

Most Romans would never have seen a triumph, but its symbolism permeated Roman imagination and material culture.

Triumphal generals minted and circulated high value coins to propagate their triumphal fame and generosity empire-wide.

Pompey's issues for his three triumphs are typical. One is an aureus a gold coin that has a laurel-wreathed border enclosing a head which personifies Africa; beside it, Pompey's title "Magnus" "The Great" , with wand and jug as symbols of his augury.

The reverse identifies him as proconsul in a triumphal chariot attended by Victory. A triumphal denarius a silver coin shows his three trophies of captured arms, with his augur's wand and jug.

Another shows a globe surrounded by triumphal wreaths, symbolising his "world conquest", and an ear of grain to show that his victory protected Rome's grain supply.

In Republican tradition, a general was expected to wear his triumphal regalia only for the day of his triumph; thereafter, they were presumably displayed in the atrium of his family home.

As one of the nobility, he was entitled to a particular kind of funeral in which a string of actors walked behind his bier wearing the masks of his ancestors; another actor represented the general himself and his highest achievement in life by wearing his funeral mask, triumphal laurels, and toga picta.

In the Imperial era, emperors wore such regalia to signify their elevated rank and office and to identify themselves with the Roman gods and Imperial order — a central feature of Imperial cult.

The building and dedication of monumental public works offered local, permanent opportunities for triumphal commemoration. Its gallery and colonnades doubled as an exhibition space and likely contained statues, paintings, and other trophies carried at his various triumphs.

He thus wove his patron goddess and putative ancestress into his triumphal anniversary. Augustus , Caesar's heir and Rome's first emperor, built a vast triumphal monument on the Greek coast at Actium , overlooking the scene of his decisive sea-battle against Antony and Egypt; the bronze beaks of captured Egyptian warships projected from its seaward wall.

Imperial iconography increasingly identified Emperors with the gods, starting with the Augustan reinvention of Rome as a virtual monarchy the principate.

Sculpted panels on the arch of Titus built by Domitian celebrate Titus ' and Vespasian 's joint triumph over the Jews after the siege of Jerusalem , with a triumphal procession of captives and treasures seized from the temple of Jerusalem — some of which funded the building of the Colosseum.

Another panel shows the funeral and apotheosis of the deified Titus. Prior to this, the senate voted Titus a triple-arch at the Circus Maximus to celebrate or commemorate the same victory or triumph.

In Republican tradition, only the Senate could grant a triumph. A general who wanted a triumph would dispatch his request and report to the Senate.

Officially, triumphs were granted for outstanding military merit; the state paid for the ceremony if this and certain other conditions were met — and these seem to have varied from time to time, and from case to case — or the Senate would pay for the official procession, at least.

Most Roman historians rest the outcome on an open Senatorial debate and vote, its legality confirmed by one of the people's assemblies ; the senate and people thus controlled the state's coffers and rewarded or curbed its generals.

Some triumphs seem to have been granted outright, with minimal debate. Some were turned down but went ahead anyway, with the general's direct appeal to the people over the senate and a promise of public games at his own expense.

Others were blocked or granted only after interminable wrangling. Senators and generals alike were politicians, and Roman politics was notorious for its rivalries, shifting alliances, back-room dealings, and overt public bribery.

There is no firm evidence that the Senate applied a prescribed set of "triumphal laws" when making their decisions, [31] [32] although Valerius Maximus does claim that a triumph could only be granted to a victorious general who had slain at least 5, of the enemy in a single battle.

During the Principate , triumphs became more politicized as manifestations of imperial authority and legitimacy.

A general might be granted a "lesser triumph", known as an Ovation. He entered the city on foot, minus his troops, in his magistrate's toga and wearing a wreath of Venus 's myrtle.

In BCE, the Senate turned down Marcus Marcellus 's request for a triumph after his victory over the Carthaginians and their Sicilian-Greek allies, apparently because his army was still in Sicily and unable to join him.

They offered him instead a thanksgiving supplicatio and ovation. The day before it, he celebrated an unofficial triumph on the Alban Mount.

His ovation was of triumphal proportions. It included a large painting, showing his siege of Syracuse , the siege engines themselves, captured plate, gold, silver, and royal ornaments, and the statuary and opulent furniture for which Syracuse was famous.

Eight elephants were led in the procession, symbols of his victory over the Carthaginians. His Spanish and Syracusan allies led the way wearing golden wreaths; they were granted Roman citizenship and lands in Sicily.

In 71 BCE, Crassus earned an ovation for quashing the Spartacus revolt, and increased his honours by wearing a crown of Jupiter's "triumphal" laurel.

They give the general's formal name, the names of his father and grandfather, the people s or command province whence the triumph was awarded, and the date of the triumphal procession.

Many ancient historical accounts also mention triumphs. Most Roman accounts of triumphs were written to provide their readers with a moral lesson, rather than to provide an accurate description of the triumphal process, procession, rites, and their meaning.

This scarcity allows only the most tentative and generalised and possibly misleading reconstruction of triumphal ceremony, based on the combination of various incomplete accounts from different periods of Roman history.

The origins and development of this honour are obscure. Roman historians placed the first triumph in the mythical past; some thought that it dated from Rome's foundation ; others thought it more ancient than that.

For triumphs of the Roman regal era, the surviving Imperial Fasti Triumphales are incomplete. After three entries for the city's legendary founder Romulus , eleven lines of the list are missing.

The Fasti were compiled some five centuries after the regal era, and probably represent an approved, official version of several different historical traditions.

Likewise, the earliest surviving written histories of the regal era, written some centuries after it, attempt to reconcile various traditions, or else debate their merits.

Dionysus , for example, gives Romulus three triumphs, the same number given in the Fasti. Livy gives him none, and credits him instead with the first spolia opima , in which the arms and armour were stripped off a defeated foe, then dedicated to Jupiter.

Plutarch gives him one, complete with chariot. Tarquin has two triumphs in the Fasti but none in Dionysius. Rome's aristocrats expelled their last king as a tyrant and legislated the monarchy out of existence.

They shared among themselves the kingship's former powers and authority in the form of magistracies.

In the Republic, the highest possible magistracy was an elected consulship, which could be held for no more than a year at a time.

In times of crisis or emergency, the Senate might appoint a dictator to serve a longer term; but this could seem perilously close to the lifetime power of kings.

The dictator Camillus was awarded four triumphs but was eventually exiled. Later Roman sources point to his triumph of BCE as a cause for offense; the chariot was drawn by four white horses, a combination properly reserved for Jupiter and Apollo — at least in later lore and poetry.

In the Middle to Late Republic, Rome's expansion through conquest offered her political-military adventurers extraordinary opportunities for self-publicity; the long-drawn series of wars between Rome and Carthage — the Punic Wars — produced twelve triumphs in ten years.

Towards the end of the Republic, triumphs became still more frequent, [46] lavish, and competitive, with each display an attempt usually successful to outdo the last.

To have a triumphal ancestor — even one long-dead — counted for a lot in Roman society and politics, and Cicero remarked that, in the race for power and influence, some individuals were not above vesting an inconveniently ordinary ancestor with triumphal grandeur and dignity, distorting an already fragmentary and unreliable historical tradition.

To Roman historians, the growth of triumphal ostentation undermined Rome's ancient "peasant virtues". Livy traces the start of the rot to the triumph of Gnaeus Manlius Vulso in , which introduced ordinary Romans to such Galatian fripperies as specialist chefs, flute girls, and other "seductive dinner-party amusements".

Pliny adds "sideboards and one-legged tables" to the list, [52] but lays responsibility for Rome's slide into luxury on the " pounds of chased silver ware and pounds of golden vessels" brought somewhat earlier by Scipio Asiaticus for his triumph of BCE.

The three triumphs awarded to Pompey the Great were lavish and controversial. Pompey was only 24 and a mere equestrian.

His triumph, however, did not go quite to plan. His chariot was drawn by a team of elephants in order to represent his African conquest — and perhaps to outdo even the legendary triumph of Bacchus.

They proved too bulky to pass through the triumphal gate, so Pompey had to dismount while a horse team was yoked in their place.

For his second triumph 71 BCE, the last in a series of four held that year his cash gifts to his army were said to break all records, though the amounts in Plutarch's account are implausibly high: 6, sesterces to each soldier about six times their annual pay and about 5 million to each officer.

It was an opportunity to outdo all rivals — and even himself. Triumphs traditionally lasted for one day, but Pompey's went on for two in an unprecedented display of wealth and luxury.

Following Caesar's murder, Octavian assumed permanent title of imperator and became permanent head of the Senate from 27 BCE see principate under the title and name Augustus.

Only the year before, he had blocked the senatorial award of a triumph to Marcus Licinius Crassus the Younger , despite the latter's acclamation in the field as Imperator and his fulfillment of all traditional, Republican qualifying criteria except full consulship.

Technically, generals in the Imperial era were legates of the ruling Emperor Imperator. By then, the triumph had been absorbed into the Augustan Imperial cult system, in which only the emperor [66] would be accorded such a supreme honour, as he was the supreme Imperator.

The Senate, in true Republican style, would have held session to debate and decide the merits of the candidate; but this was little more than good form.

Augustan ideology insisted that Augustus had saved and restored the Republic, and it celebrated his triumph as a permanent condition, and his military, political, and religious leadership as responsible for an unprecedented era of stability, peace, and prosperity.

From then on, emperors claimed — without seeming to claim — the triumph as an Imperial privilege.

Those outside the Imperial family might be granted "triumphal ornaments" Ornamenta triumphalia or an ovation, such as Aulus Plautius under Claudius.

The senate still debated and voted on such matters, though the outcome was probably already decided. Imperial panegyrics of the later Imperial era combine triumphal elements with Imperial ceremonies such as the consular investiture of Emperors, and the adventus , the formal "triumphal" arrival of an emperor in the various capitals of the Empire in his progress through the provinces.

Some emperors were perpetually on the move and seldom or never went to Rome. In , well into the Byzantine era , Justinian I awarded general Belisarius a triumph that included some "radically new" Christian and Byzantine elements.

Belisarius successfully campaigned against his adversary Vandal leader Gelimer to restore the former Roman province of Africa to the control of Byzantium in the Vandalic War.

The triumph was held in the Eastern Roman capital of Constantinople. Historian Procopius , an eyewitness who had previously been in Belisarius's service, describes the procession's display of the loot seized from the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE by Roman Emperor Titus , including the Temple Menorah.

The treasure had been stored in Rome's Temple of Peace after its display in Titus' own triumphal parade and its depiction on his triumphal arch ; then it was seized by the Vandals during their sack of Rome in ; then it was taken from them in Belisarius' campaign.

The objects themselves might well have recalled the ancient triumphs of Vespasian and his son Titus; but Belisarius and Gelimer walked, as in an ovation.

The procession did not end at Rome's Capitoline Temple with a sacrifice to Jupiter, but terminated at Hippodrome of Constantinople with a recitation of Christian prayer and the triumphant generals prostrate before the emperor.

During the Renaissance , kings and magnates sought ennobling connections with the classical past. The procession was led by his Florentine captives, made to carry candles in honour of Lucca's patron saint.

Castracani followed, standing in a decorative chariot. His booty included the Florentines' portable, wheeled altar, the carroccio. Flavio Biondo 's Roma Triumphans claimed the ancient Roman triumph, divested of its pagan rites, as a rightful inheritance of Holy Roman Emperors.

In the s, the fragmentary Fasti Triumphales were unearthed and partially restored. Onofrio Panvinio 's Fasti continued where the ancient Fasti left off.

The extravagant triumphal entry into Rouen of Henri II of France in was not "less pleasing and delectable than the third triumph of Pompey From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Triumphator. Main article: Ovation. Main articles: Trionfo and Royal entry. See also Diodorus, 4. In Pliny, a sacred phallos loaned by the Vestal Virgins is slung between the chariot wheels; see Beard, pp.

Nevertheless, they imply a tradition that the triumphing general was publicly reminded of his mortal nature, whatever his kingly appearance, temporary godlike status, or divine associations.

See Beard, pp. Some modern scholarship suggests a procession 7 km long as plausible. See Beard, p. For their joint triumph of 71 CE, Titus and Vespasian treated their soldiers to a very early, and possibly traditional "triumphal breakfast".

See discussion in Beard, pp. Faced with this reaction, Pompey never tried it again. Edmondson, Steve Mason, J.

Rives eds.

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